It is arduous to imagine that Sonic the Hedgehog is sort of 30 years old. Racing onto the Sega Genesis in 1991, the sprightly hedgehog shortly grew to become a veritable online game icon and new Sega mascot — and a tech trailblazer.

Technological innovation is an interesting a part of Sonic’s historical past, informing the character’s evolution over time. In the course of the 16-bit technology, Sega experimented with Genesis add-ons just like the reasonably profitable Sega CD, and the ill-fated 32X. In 1995, It launched what was primarily a transportable Genesis, the Sega Nomad. The corporate produced a full-color handheld at a time when Nintendo’s Game Boy nonetheless rocked a dot-matrix display. Its cable-based content material supply service, the Sega Channel, took being a Sega fan to a wholly new stage. Every innovation met with combined success, however Sega surged ahead, taking its flagship franchise in numerous technological instructions alongside the way in which.

So earlier than you head out and see this weekend’s feature film, lace up your trainers and snag some golden rings whereas we deliver you on top of things on the technological historical past of Sonic the Hedgehog.


The unique Sonic the Hedgehog was a massive hit, inspiring not solely a sequel however an 8-bit model for each the Sega Master System and Sport Gear handheld. The sport is not a port of the Genesis title — it is a utterly new model of the sport, sustaining the spirit of the unique on much less superior {hardware}. With some oversight from Sonic Group, Yuzo Koshiro’s Ancient Corp constructed their very own model of Sonic the Hedgehog from the bottom up. Koshiro supervised the event and musical course of the 8-bit sport. Utilizing a programmable sound generator, he transformed themes from Genesis Sonic to 8-bit type and composed a couple of unique items for the title.

Whereas it lacked the pace of the Genesis sport because of {hardware} limitations, there was a bigger give attention to exploration and platforming. The sport used the identical story and comparable gameplay parts, however featured completely different levels, layouts, and altered boss battles. Two new zones — the Bridge (containing an auto-scroll stage) and the Jungle (that includes a wholly vertical stage) had been unique to the 8-bit model. As a result of body price limitations on each programs, rings not bounced across the display, so Sonic misplaced them perpetually as soon as he sustained injury. Some gadgets appeared in numerous places on every system as effectively, to maximise the house accessible whereas protecting the expertise useful.

The Sega Grasp System and Sport Gear variations had been primarily the identical sport, with a couple of key variations. The Sport Gear modified some boss battles to accommodate the pace and determination of the system. Whereas the Grasp System model seems brighter and extra colourful, the Sport Gear model has the next colour palette regardless of its decrease decision.

Most fascinating are the warning indicators current within the Inexperienced Hill Zone of the Sport Gear model. It seems the indicators had been there to assist forestall Sonic from going too quick as a result of the upper speeds and slim display of the unit apparently caused problems with the sport.

A unique firm, Aspect Co., developed the 8-bit model of Sonic 2. It was vastly completely different than its Genesis counterpart with gameplay just like its 8-bit predecessor. There is a hold gliding stage that pushes the hand held to its limits, whereas the sport tried to ramp up the pace in a number of new phases. Side Co. launched an unique sequel, Sonic Chaos, for each Grasp System and Sport Gear. Many 8-bit spin-off titles — like Tails’ Adventure and Sonic Triple Trouble — adopted, however none of them pushed the system practically as a lot as the unique.

Sonic 2 launched many collection staples other than Tails. It introduced us the legendary spin sprint approach that seems in each subsequent 2D Sonic title so far. Even the latest Sega Ages launch of Sonic the Hedgehog retroactively provides the approach to boost the sport on newer expertise.


With the success of the franchise effectively underway and the 8-bit period fading, a brand new technological innovation occurred with Sonic 3. In 1994, Sega discovered itself in a weird state of affairs: a earlier dedication to a promotion involving McDonald’s Happy Meal toys mixed with a sport that was too large to suit onto a single cart led the formidable Sonic 3 to turn out to be two video games as a substitute of 1. The builders lower the sport in half, releasing Sonic 3 in February 1994, with a follow-up scheduled for October.

Sega programmed Sonic & Knuckles to be the second half of Sonic 3. The sport cartridge had a slot on prime the place gamers might lock of their Sonic 3 cartridge, increasing Sonic & Knuckles into the total sport it was meant to be from the beginning. Particular circuitry contained in the cart put in combined the sport ROMs from every title into one address space. Most of the code got here from Sonic & Knuckles‘ cartridge, however by advantage of the lock-on expertise, the sport might attain into and use belongings from Sonic 3.

The lock-on expertise allowed another fascinating options while you plugged in Sonic 1 or Sonic 2 to the Sonic & Knuckles cart. The latter opened up the whole thing of Sonic 2 to the character of Knuckles whereas the previous introduced up an error screen, however did enable gamers to entry the blue sphere bonus phases from Sonic 3 by pushing the A, B, or C buttons. Serving its function, the expertise fell into disuse however stands as a testomony to Sonic Group’s dedication and skill to beat the restrictions of its {hardware} on the time.


Sonic made a profitable transition into 3D with Sonic Journey on the Sega Dreamcast. The sport included the Dreamcast’s visible reminiscence unit (VMU) — a removable reminiscence card with controls and an LCD display — with a mini-game known as Chao Journey. Gamers might practice their Chao within the VMU, then switch it again to be used in Sonic Journey.

Although common and well-received, Journey wasn’t the primary try and transition the character into 3D. First, Sonic 3 experimented with isometric bonus phases. Then got here Sonic 3D Blast, an isometric platformer with 3D pre-rendering in elements of the sport. Lastly, there was the formidable Sonic X-treme, which Game Informer suggests contributed to Sonic’s troublesome transfer to 3D. The event cycle suffered rocky and numerous setbacks that in the end led to the sport’s cancellation.

Later 3D video games launched varied gimmicks, however few of them display the identical stage of innovation of earlier titles. A few of them endure from bugs, glitching, and design issues.

After the Dreamcast, Sega moved away from {hardware} to give attention to software program improvement. Sega quickly developed the “Hedgehog Engine” for his or her 3D video games. Ostensibly a graphics engine, it allowed Sonic video games to supply CGI-quality graphics on the Wii U, PC, PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360 (however not the Wii or PlayStation 2). The engine makes use of Global Illumination to make a single gentle supply mirror off each merchandise in a scene. A part of the engine, Gentle Area, seamlessly blends characters into their environments. Each Sonic Unleashed and Sonic: Lost World used the engine.

Sonic Generations mixed traditional and fashionable Sonic in a mixture of 2.5D traditional phases and 3D fashionable phases utilizing the Hedgehog Engine. The 3DS model wasn’t appropriate, nevertheless, however each Generations and Sonic: The Misplaced World took benefit of the system’s stereoscopic 3D impact, which works by using a parallax barrier to create the phantasm of 3D.

A unique type of 3D Sonic appeared in 2013 on the Nintendo 3DS, when Sega gave the unique Sonic the Hedgehog a stereoscopic 3D makeover. It is just like viewing a Actual-D 3D movie on the cinema, solely as a substitute of passively viewing content material, you work together instantly with the on-screen motion, whereas controlling the depth of the 3D impact. Sega later used the impact on a number of later 3DS Genesis classics (together with Sonic 2).

Extra just lately, Sonic Forces took 3D Sonic in a promising course. Apart from its original character generator, it makes use of the brand new Hedgehog Engine 2. The brand new engine improves shadows, creates real looking lighting, and will increase the sport’s pace with out lowering its high quality.


In 2017, Sega gave Sonic followers a pleasing shock within the type of the model new 2D, retro-style Sonic Mania. Operating at 60 FPS with pixel-perfect graphics, the sport supplies a mixture of new and re-imagined zones with 5 playable characters.

A couple of well-known Sonic fans labored tirelessly on the sport, a lot of whom established themselves as proficient builders within the Sonic fan sport neighborhood years previous to Mania‘s improvement. Considered one of them, Christian Whitehead, constructed the Retro Engine upon which Sonic Mania runs. Whitehead’s love of 2D Sonic, expertise, and talent grew to become obvious along with his 2008 fan sport, Retro Sonic, and it is no shock that he was instrumental in revitalizing 2D Sonic for the fashionable world. Sega hired Whitehead in 2009 to port Sonic CD to the iPhone and different platforms. He rebuilt the sport utilizing his retro engine, to nice success.

One other developer, Simon Thomley of Headcanon studios, labored with Whitehead to create different 2D Sonic ports and so they finally teamed as much as make Sonic Mania. Constructing the sport on fashionable software program made it extra like a continuation of the 16 and 32-bit era video games, a pure subsequent step within the evolution of the collection.

The Retro Engine itself focuses on rasterizing, mode 7 results, and different options of retro consoles whereas permitting for contemporary facilities corresponding to widescreen, higher soundtracks, and better body charges.

Sonic Mania additionally incorporates pinball mechanics and parts (like bumpers) into its sport design, paying homage to using comparable mechanics in earlier video games. Sonic Mania is addictive, loaded with Sonic Easter eggs, introduces new characters, and can maintain you busy for a while.


Although he is had his ups and downs, Sonic’s future appears vibrant. On prime of his new feature film, Sega recently announced an upcoming primary collection Sonic sport is within the works. Will it use the Hedgehog Engine 2 as a graphical base and proceed within the vein of Sonic Forces? Perhaps there’s a spot in Sonic’s future for a Sonic Mania follow-up showcasing extra of what the Retro Engine can do.

Maybe it’s going to go in one other course and use augmented or digital actuality to boost graphics and gameplay. Somebody already made a VR version of Green Hill Zone. How lengthy will or not it’s earlier than Sega produces a full VR Sonic title? The world wants a VR Sonic sport or two.

Whatever the type the expertise takes, it will likely be fascinating to see what comes subsequent for Sonic as he continues to run towards technological innovation throughout quite a lot of media and codecs.


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